The Project:

Areas of Research

WP 1 Project Management MGT

WP1 aims at ensuring sound management of the contractual, administrative, financial matters of the FIDUCIA project: the activities carried out under WP1 will have a continuous nature and are intended to support the scientific side of the project.

Special attention will be paid to the monitoring of project performance against the objectives and expected results set in the WPs: where progress is slower (or faster) than projected, tasks will be rescheduled as necessary. The intranet area of the FIDUCIA web portal (developed in WP15) will include a section devoted to the exchange of administrative and financial documents, progress re-ports and other management documents among partners.

WP 2 State of the art (1): Crime trends RTD

WP2 will provide a synthesis of what can be said with confidence about crime trends in Europe, and will draw out the policy implications of this synthesis. Statistics on crime trends are partial; whether one considers police statistics of recorded crime or the findings of victimisation surveys, there are clear limits to comparability across jurisdiction. Police statistics are inevitably inconsistent, and crime surveys are incomplete in their coverage in terms both of geography and of crime types.

However, it is possible to integrate information systematically from police statistics of recorded crime with the growing findings from national and international victimisation surveys, and this work-package will do so. It will also identify both jurisdictions and categories of crime where existing data suffer from particular limitations.

This work-package will provide the essential context against which different approaches to the regulation of crime can be assessed in a comparative perspective.

WP 3 State of the art (2): Policies RTD
WP3 will “compare and contrast” different approaches to the regulation of criminal behaviour across Europe. It will attempt to characterise the balance struck in different jurisdictions between repressive and inclusive crime control strategies – or between strategies emphasising instrumental compliance and those that foster normative compliance. It will also review the evidence on what can be said about the relative effectiveness of different control strategies (deterrence, incapacitation, early intervention, rehabilitation, restorative justice etc.). This is a ambitious work-package, but sufficient evidence is now available to allow some statement of the intended and unintended consequences of the different strategies, in a form that is genuinely accessible to policy makers.

WP 4 State of the art (3): Public perceptions RTD

WP4 reviews what is currently known about fear of crime, trust in justice and punitive attitudes of citizens across Europe.

New analyses will be conducted (of European Social Survey data) in order to shed fresh light on issues that are not well understood in the research literature.

While WP4 intends to draw the general picture on attitudes towards crime, justice and punishment, it will also try to map the phenomena by their geographical and social location. Let us not forget that Europe is a large entity and its different regions and social groups do not share the same attitudes, values and social and political contexts.

WP 5 Development of a Model of “Trust-Based” Policy RTD

WP5 is the conceptual WP of the FIDUCIA project. Its objective is to produce a model – or set of principles – for the application of ’trust-based’ policy to the regulation of new forms of European crimes. The work-package will bring together elements of conceptual analysis and policy analysis to propose ways of achieving the best ”fit” between informal and formal systems of social control as cross-national and supranational systems of criminal justice become more significant across Europe.

Building on this conceptual analysis, the work-package will mount policy analysis to identify the main components (both internal and external to the justice system) that are necessary for trust-based policies to emerge in relation to emerging forms of criminality, and also the main obstacles that impede the implementation of such policies. The aim is to establish where trust-based policies can (and can’t) work, and whether the scope of trust-based regulation is being underestimated by governments and supra-national institutions.

WP 6 Trafficking of human beings RTD

The first of four work-packages that will involve case-studies of emerging forms of criminality across Europe. It is concerned with trafficking, focussing specifically on the trafficking of people, as distinct from trafficking of goods, which is covered in WP7.
In general, WP6 aims at understanding the scope and the nature of human trafficking and review-ing the impact of relevant national and international policies. The aim would be to alter the “normative climate” within which traffickers operate, to reduce the cooperation and tacit support that they receive from those who are peripherally involved in the process.

WP 7 Trafficking of goods RTD

WP7 is the project’s second case-study work-package. It will address trafficking of a wide range of goods. It will focus on the trafficking of drugs, cigarettes and alcohol, but will also consider the trafficking of antiques and works of art and counterfeit products. This group of offences has been selected as being a direct consequence of a more integrated and mobile Europe.

WP 8 Criminalization of migration and ethnic minorities RTD

WP8 investigates the construction a “risk category” by which irregular (im)migration and certain ethnic groups are linked with deviant behaviors and criminality across the EU. Focus will concentrate on a) criminalization of undocumented migrants; b) criminalization of solidarity; and c) criminalization of Roma communities in the EU. Furthermore, WP8 aims to analyse populist discourses linking “migration and crime”; assess on the basis of statistical data the correlation between immigrant population and crime level in the EU; and identify positive, “trust based” practices on irregular migration and towards ethnic minorities.

WP 9 Cybercrimes RTD

WP9 aims at exploring the legal, criminological and sociological aspects of cyber-crime as a new European-scale emergency. This objective will be achieved through: a) analysis of drivers of this type of crimes and related data collection; b) review of the legislation, policies and practical measures for the prevention of and fight against cyber crime at Member State and EU level; and c) study of the public perceptions in selected Members States as regards the scope of the problem and the effectiveness of the measures against certain types of cybercrimes.

WP 10 Criteria for criminalization RTD

WP10 re-opens the difficult question of determining when to use - and not to use - the criminal law in the regulation of deviance and social problems, with specific regard to the adverse impact of ineffective over-criminalisation on public perceptions of justice.

WP10 investigates a number of research questions: a) what are the alternatives to criminalisation in theory and practice b) what is known about the adverse effects of ineffective over-criminalisation on public perceptions; c) what are best and worst examples of de-criminalisation and over-criminalisation across Europe.

WP 11 Trust and attitudes to justice “at home” RTD

WP11 will produce a comprehensive and accessible analysis of findings from the trust in justice module of Round 5 of the European Social Survey. As explained above, the module was developed by several FIDUCIA members as a product of the EURO-JUSTIS project (FP7-Cooperation, 2008-2011). The quality of the work was recognized by the European Social Survey team, when it allowed (after a highly competitive peer-review process) the questionnaire to be included in the most recent round of ESS Survey (2010).

WP11 of FIDUCIA will undertake the task of analyzing the data collected by ESS, which will be available from September 2011. The survey data will be merged with country-level indicators generated by the EURO-JUSTIS project, covering a wide range of economic, political and justice variables. This will allow multi-level statistical modelling of factors that shape trust, perceptions of legitimacy and compliance.

WP 12 Trust and attitudes to justice “abroad” RTD

WP12 will investigate the dynamics of trust with regard to “new” crimes and crimes committed be-yond State borders. It will involve a survey of public opinion in seven Countries (United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Finland Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey). The selection was made to ensure data collection from big EU Member States smaller States that are respresentatives of different Euro-pean regions (Scandinavia, Balkans) and a non EU member State.

WP13 Synthesis and policy proposals RTD

WP13 is intended not only to summarise project findings for academic purposes, but also to produce a raft of evidence-led policy proposals aimed at explaining in details when a trust-based policy can and cannot work, as well as in what terms, under what conditions, trust-based regulation is of value.

The main aim of WP13 is thus to synthesise the project results and to put forward policy proposals to Member States and the EU. The focus is on the regulation – at the national and supra-national level – of the four forms of emerging crimes investigated in WP6-9; however, the worekpackage will also identify more general principles for the regulation of other forms of criminality that are a function of European integration and mobility.

WP14 Validation OTHER

WP14 provides an organisational structure within which to locate the work of the External Expert Group (EEG) providing high-level validation of FIDUCIA scientific activities and results.
The scrutiny of the EEG will ensure that the project complies with the highest international standards in its research fields and will thus contribute to the credibility and reputation of the consortium and the project.

The validation process will also help the partners to manage risks associated with the research, since the methodologies and procedures used in the substantive work packages will be cross-checked by the EEG at all key stages of the project.

WP15 Dissemination OTHER

WP15 aims to communicate the goals and results of the FIDUCIA project to the wide community of players and stakeholders interested in crime, deviance and criminal justice policy. The primary objective of WP15 is to bring the innovative model of trust-based policy to the attention of policy makers, governments, academics, and practitioners (judges and lawyers) across Europe More specifically, dissemination will have two specific objectives:
• present the project’s vision and evidence-based results to policy-makers, administrators and non-governmental organisations both at EU level and in the individual Member States; and,
• engage the large community of criminal justice experts and academics in Europe in a de-bate on new criminal behaviours and related innovative policy responses.